From pole to pole and east to west, oceans are acidifying at a rate that directly reflects the amount of carbon dioxide humans have emitted to the atmosphere.  New maps published in the journal Marine Chemistry show how the changing seasons contribute to geographical patterns in seawater pH and the availability of aragonite, an important mineral for shell-building organisms that becomes less available as the ocean soaks up carbon dioxide.

The maps were informed by long-term data collected from Bermuda, the Canary Islands and Hawaii, as well as from Iceland and the Drake Passage, which straddles the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans between Antarctica and South America.  These global maps help identify where marine organisms may face the biggest challenges as carbon dioxide emissions continue to impact ocean chemistry.

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