<p>
	Research on invertebrate swimming is facilitated by the environmental chambers. Animals can be kept at natural temperatures (in this case pteropods are being filmed in the 5 cm<sup>3</sup> chamber) during the long period of filming, and any clouding of optical devices (high speed cameras) due to condensation is avoided. Photo by Samm Newton</p>

Research on invertebrate swimming is facilitated by the environmental chambers. Animals can be kept at natural temperatures (in this case pteropods are being filmed in the 5 cm3 chamber) during the long period of filming, and any clouding of optical devices (high speed cameras) due to condensation is avoided. Photo by Samm Newton

<p>
	Researchers calibrate the camera systems to obtain the type of light required to conduct research into how pteropod swimming is influenced by density layers in the ocean. Photo by Samm Newton</p>

Researchers calibrate the camera systems to obtain the type of light required to conduct research into how pteropod swimming is influenced by density layers in the ocean. Photo by Samm Newton

<p>
	Pteropds are filmed in a 3x3x1cm chamber to observe their swimming patterns. The green color is from phytoplankton that have been placed in the water. The phytoplankton act as particles that can be tracked in the video to determine the flow of the water while the animal is swimming – a technique called particle image velocimetry (PIV). Photo by Samm Newton</p>

Pteropds are filmed in a 3x3x1cm chamber to observe their swimming patterns. The green color is from phytoplankton that have been placed in the water. The phytoplankton act as particles that can be tracked in the video to determine the flow of the water while the animal is swimming – a technique called particle image velocimetry (PIV). Photo by Samm Newton

With funding from an NSF Improvements in Facilities, Communications, and Equipment at Biological Field Stations and Marine Laboratories (FSML) grant, BIOS's infrastructure now includes an Environmental Change Research Facility. Designed to test the effects of multiple anthropogenic stressors on the marine environment, such as temperature, nutrients, CO2, and low O2, the facility includes two environmental chambers with flow-through seawater, a CO2 exposure facility, and an inverted microscope equipped with DIC optics, epifluoresence, and CellSens imaging software.

The environmental chambers have temperature control for a range of 5-30 +/- 0.50C, a programmable thermostat and lights, and access to flow-through seawater, which can be controlled by standalone chiller units for temperature pre-equilibration. Combined these allow for multiple flow-through environments free of the daily fluctuations in external temperature. These chambers are ideal for investigations into the interactive effects of temperature and other stressors, while also providing a temperature-controlled environment for process studies of basic organismal function.

More information about the inverted microscope can be found on the Micropscopy and Image Analysis Facility page.

Current research being conducted in the BIOS ECRF includes this investigation into the physics and ecology of sea butterflies.